Living Bibliography


Ferdinand Tönnies

Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt, North Frisia, Schleswig) – 9 April 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. He was a major contributor to sociological theory and field studies, best known for his distinction between two types of social groups, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. He was also a prolific writer and co-founder of the German Society for Sociology (of which he was president from 1909 to 1933, when he was ousted by the Nazis).